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Important Current Affairs 15th October 2020


Union Cabinet approves World Bank-aided STARS project

• The Union Cabinet has approved implementation of the World Bank-aided STARS project. The project seeks to support the states in implementing, developing, evaluating and improving interventions with direct linkages to improve quality of education.  STARS stands for Strengthening Teaching-Learning and Results for States.

• The total project cost is estimated to be around Rs. 5,718 crore, out of which the financial support from World Bank will amount to  USD 500 million (approximately Rs. 3700 crore). This was informed by Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Prakash Javadekar during a press briefing after the Cabinet meeting.

• The project will cover six states- Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Kerala. This is expected to mark an important milestone and mark the beginning of the New Education Policy.

World Economic Forum shifts annual meeting 2021 from Davos to Lucerne

• The World Economic Forum (WEF) has announced that the Annual Meeting 2021 will be held in Lucerne-Burgenstock, Switzerland, as against the traditional venue of ski resort town Davos.

• The meeting has been re-scheduled to be held from May 18 to 21, 2021 instead of the usual January-end each year.

• The Annual Meeting 2021 in Lucerne-Burgenstock will be held around the theme of ‘The Great Reset’.


Pakistan listed on ‘Enhanced Follow-up List’ by FATF

• Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Asia Pacific group has kept Pakistan in its ‘Enhanced Follow Up’ list.

• The organisation had downgraded Pakistan status from “regular follow-up” to “enhanced follow up”.

• According to the FATF’s report, Pakistan complied with only two of the 40 recommendations of Financial Action Task Force.

Banking and Economy

IMF projects India’s GDP to contract 10.3% in 2020

• The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has projected the Indian economy to contract by 10.3 percent in 2020-21, from its earlier prediction of -4.5 percent due to rise in C-19 cases.

• IMF estimates the GDP of India to grow at 8.8 percent in 2021-22, as compared to 6 percent predicted earlier, regaining the position of the fastest growing emerging economy.

Banks’ aggregate exposure limit for small businesses raised to Rs 7.5 crore by RBI

• The credit card named Axis ACE Credit Card to entities with turnover up to Rs 50 crore to Rs 7.5 crore by Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

• RBI has also decided to extend the existing enhanced Held to Maturity (HTM) limit of 22 percent for SLR securities acquired between September 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021, up to March 31, 2022.

Summits and Mou’s

Tamil Nadu Chief Minister signs 14 MoUs to generate employment

• Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Edappadi K. Palaniswami signed 14 Agreements worth Rs. 10, 055 crore with potential to generate employment in the State.

• The Tamil Nadu State Government is also ranked first among Indian states in attracting investments during the first six months of this year.


Central bank of the year award 2020 awarded to “Bank of Ghana”

• Bank of Ghana has won the Central bank of the year award 2020.

• Apart from this, Mark Carney (Governor of the Bank of England) has won the Governor of the year at the Central bank of the year award 2020.

Appointments and Resignations

Bharate launches new brand campaign with 11 cricketers as brand ambassadors

• BharatPe has announced the launch of its high impact TV campaign starring ‘Team BharatPe’ with 11 Cricket stars.

• The TVC series has been directed by ace Bollywood director, Puneet Malhotra, and communicates the message ‘Hum Hai Team BharatPe – Jo Desh Ke Har Dukandaar Ke Saath Hai Khade’.

• This is the first time that a new age FinTech company has rolled out a TV campaign with 11 top cricket stars as its brand ambassadors. Team BharatPe includes Rohit Sharma, Jasprit Bumrah, KL Rahul, Mohammed Shami, Ravindra Jadeja, Suresh Raina, Shreyas Iyer, Prithvi Shaw, Sanju Samson, Yuzvendra Chahal, and Shubhman Gill.


World Students’ Day

• World Students’ Day is observed every year on October 15 to mark the birth anniversary of former President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam.

• In 2010 the United Nations declared 15 October “World Students’ Day”, due to Kalam’s love for students and who himself was a dedicated teacher and identified himself foremost in that role before anything else.

• 2020 marks 89th birth anniversary of the former president and ‘Missile Man’ Dr APJ Abdul Kalam.

Books and Authors

Autobiography of former Union Minister Balasaheb Vikhe Patil

• Prime Minister released the autobiography of former Union Minister Dr Balasaheb Vikhe Patil through video conferencing on 13 October 2020.

• The autobiography of Dr. Patil has been titled ‘Deh Vechwa Karani,’ means ‘dedicating one’s life for a noble cause.’

• Dr Patil was a prominent leader from Maharashtra who served as seven time Member of Lok Sabha.

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Important Current Affairs 14th October 2020


Kerala: First State to become Digital in Public Education

• The State of Kerala is the first state in the country to make public education completely digital.

• The state Government has achieved it at a cost of Rs 42.36 crores. The initiative was launched in 2018.

BRICS Ministerial Summit 2020 held virtually

• BRICS Ministerial Summit 2020 held through online mode via Video Conferencing.

• Minister of State (I/C) for Labour & Employment, Shri Santosh Gangwar represented India in this meeting. This BRICS Labour & Employment Ministers’ Virtual Meeting was held under Russian Presidency.

• The Objective of this BRICS Summit is to discuss various issues including approaches to creating a safe work culture in BRICS countries.

Banking and Economy

IMF projects India’s GDP to contract 10.3% in 2020; rebound with 8.8% growth in 2021-22

• In its latest ‘World Economic Outlook’ report, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has projected the Indian economy to contract by 10.3 percent in 2020-21, from its earlier prediction of 4.5 percent due to rise in C-19 cases.

• However, IMF estimates the GDP of India to grow at 8.8 percent in 2021-22, as compared to 6 percent predicted earlier, regaining the position of the fastest growing emerging economy.

• On the other hand, the Fund expects the world economy to contract by 4.4 percent in 2020. This projection was -5.2 percent earlier

Axis Bank launches ACE Credit Card in collaboration with Google Pay and Visa

• Axis Bank has launched a new entry-level credit card named Axis ACE Credit Card, with focus on increasing participation of users in the digital economy.

• The card has been launched in collaboration with Google Pay and will run on Visa (Signature) platform.

• ACE Credit card users would get 5% Cashback on Bill payments (electricity, internet, gas and more), DTH and mobile recharges done through Google Pay.

Summits and Mou’s

Microsoft and AICTE partnered to skill students

• The Government of India’s All India Council For Technical Education (AICTE) has partnered with Microsoft to empower learners and educators with future-ready skills.

• As part of this partnership, over 1500 course modules from Microsoft will be made available to students and educators free of cost through AICTE’s e-learning portal, ELIS.


Best Ships in FAF 2020: Indian Navy Ships Sahyadri and Kora

• The Fleet Award Function (FAF), 2020 was organised to mark the successful culmination of the Operational Cycle of the Eastern Fleet of the Indian Navy at Visakhapatnam.

• Indian Navy Ships Sahyadri and Kora is named as the Best Ships in FAF 2020.

• During the event, the Fleet Operations Officer presented the Annual Report of activities and achievements of the Fleet for 01 Apr 19 to 31 Mar 20.


Former Indian Football Captain Carlton Chapman passed away

• Former Indian football captain, Carlton Chapman passed away. He was born on 13th April 1971 in Bengaluru, Karnataka. He announced his retirement from professional Football in 2001.

• He was the captain of the Indian team when India won the South Asian Football Federation Gold Cup in 1997. He was a leading midfielder played for Indian from 1995 to 2001.

• He joined Quartz FC, Kozhikode as the technical director in 2017.

Priscilla Jana, Renowned Indian-origin South African Human Rights Lawyer Passes Away

• Renowned Indian-origin South African human rights lawyer Priscilla Jana has passed away at the age of 76.

• Jana, who had played a significant role against apartheid, was the Deputy Chairperson of the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC).

CM Chang, Environment Minister of Nagaland passes away

• Senior Nagaland Minister ‘CM Chang’ has passed away, due to C-19. He was 78-years-old.

• Chang was serving as the Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change, and Justice and Law.


17th NBA Championship won by Los Angeles Lakers

• The National Basketball Association (NBA) Championship 2020 held on 12 October 2020.

• The Los Angeles Lakers won this year trophy by defeating the Miami Heat.

• NBA Finals Most Valuable Player (MVP): LeBron James of the Lakers’ was named the for the fourth time in his career.


Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index 2020

• The international charitable organisation ‘Oxfam International’ released a report on 2020 Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index.

• India has been ranked 129 among 158 countries. The 2020 CRI index has been topped by Norway. South Sudan is the lowest ranking country in the index at 158th position.


World Standards Day

• The World Standards Day (WSD), also known as International Standards Day, is celebrated globally on 14 October annually.

• World Standards Day 2020 theme is “Protecting the planet with standards”.

• The day aims to raise awareness about the importance of standardisation to the global economy among the consumers, regulators and industry.

International Day for Disaster Reduction observed on 13 October

• The United Nations observe International Day for Disaster Reduction every year on 13th October.

• Objective is to promote a global culture of risk-awareness and disaster reduction and also celebrates how people and communities around the world are reducing their exposure to disasters and raising awareness about the importance of reining in the risks that they face.

• Theme of 2020 International Day for Disaster Reduction is ‘Disaster risk governance’.

Books and Authors

A former RAW officer unravels the path to 1984 in his book `The Khalistan Conspiracy’

• A former intelligence officer with the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), GBS Sidhu has written the book titled ” The Khalistan Conspiracy”.

• The book published by HarperCollins will be released on October 24.

• The contents of this book revolve around a two-phased, top-secret operation, which he named “Operation Bhindranwale-Khalistan”.

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Important Current Affairs 13th October 2020


PM releases Rs 100 commemorative coin to honour Vijaya Raje Scindia

• On 12 October 2020, Prime Minister Narendra Modi released a commemorative coin of Rs 100 to mark the birth centenary of Rajmata Vijaya Raje Scindia, one of the founder member of the ruling BJP, through a virtual ceremony.

• The special coin has been minted by the Ministry of Finance.

• Vijaya Raje Scindia, who dedicated her life to poor people, is also popularly known as the Rajmata of Gwalior.

Graded Response Action Plan for Delhi & NCR

• The Supreme Court-appointed Environment Pollution (Prevention & Control) Authority (EPCA) has directed the Delhi and National Capital Region (NCR) states to implement air pollution control measures listed under the “very poor” and “severe” category of Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP). These measures will come into force from October 15, 2020 to improve the air quality of the Delhi-NCR region.

• As per the directions given by the EPCA, the diesel generators will no longer be used in Delhi and NCR towns including Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurgaon and others with effect from October 15. The generators will only be used for emergency and essential services.

• Moreover, the Pollution control authorities will carry out the night patrolling to investigate dust, industrial emissions and burning of waste. The pollution monitoring body has also directed the authorities to undertake frequent sprinkling of water on roads.


World Economic Forum shifts annual meeting 2021 from Davos to Lucerne

• The World Economic Forum (WEF) said it will hold its Annual Meeting 2021 in Lucerne-Burgenstock, Switzerland, from May 18 to 21, as against the traditional venue of ski resort town Davos in January-end.

• The change in schedule and venue was necessitated by the C-19 pandemic.

Argentina becomes 1st nation to approve genetically modified wheat

• Argentina has approved HB4 drought-resistant GMO wheat, making it the first country in the world to approve a strain of GMO wheat.

• The drought-resistant HB4 wheat variety was developed by Argentine biotechnology company Bioceres, working with the National University and Conicet.

• Bioceres’ HB4 wheat is resistant to drought and tolerates the herbicide glufosinate sodium, a combination the company says can help boost yields on dry years.

Banking and Economy

Nirmala Sitharaman Announces Rs.73,000-Crore Measures To Boost Consumer Demand

• Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman chaired the 43rd GST Council meeting through video conferencing in New Delhi on 12 October 2020.

• Sitharaman announced several measures to boost capital expenditure and stimulate consumer demand in the economy, which are are estimated to cost Rs 73,000 crore by 31 March 2021.

• Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman today announced that government employees can avail cash voucher for LTC if they can’t travel due to pandemic. Employees can use the money to buy items attracting 12 per cent or more GST, increasing consumer demand. However, employees can spend an LTC cash voucher only through digital mode and at places registered under GST before 31 March 2021.

• The government also announced that the north-east states will get 50-year interest-free loans of Rs 1,600 crore and Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand will get Rs 900 crore. The amount has to be spent by 31 march 2021. Other states will also get Rs 7,500 crore loans in proportion to their share in Finance Commission evolution.

• FM Sitharaman added that half of the amount will be disbursed initially and the second part will be disbursed once the previous amount is utilised. Further, the government increased the centre’s capital expenditure budget by Rs 25,000 crore from Rs 4.13 lakh crore for expenditure on the road, water supply, urban development, and defence infrastructure including manufacturing domestic equipment


Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences 2020 announced

• The 2020 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences has been awarded jointly to Paul R. Milgrom and Robert B. Wilson “for improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats”

• The award is officially known as the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2020.

• The laureates in economic sciences are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm.

• It comes with a gold medal and a cash award of 10 million Swedish krona ($1.12 million).

Sarah Hall becomes first writer to win BBC National Short Story Award twice

• Sarah Hall has become the first writer to win the BBC national short story award twice, with judges describing her as a virtuoso of the form.


International Day for Disaster Reduction

• The United Nations International Day for Disaster Reduction is observed globally on 13th October.

• The day is celebrated to promote a global culture of risk-awareness and disaster reduction and also celebrates how people and communities around the world are reducing their exposure to disasters and raising awareness about the importance of reining in the risks that they face.

• This year’s International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction is all about governance.

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Important Current Affairs 12th October 2020


All eight Indian beaches recommended by Ministry of Environment and Forests awarded the prestigious International Blue Flag Certification

• The Union Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar has informed that all eight beaches recommended by the Government of India has got the coveted International Blueflag  Certification.

• India is the first nation to achieve such a feat, as no other Blueflag nation has ever been awarded for 8 beaches in a single attempt.

• The Blue Flag programme is a world-renowned award operated by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE), headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark to benchmark the beaches as clean and hygienic.

CWG medallist Shuttler Chetan Anand named brand ambassador of India’s first-ever Badminton Brand ‘Transform’

• Commonwealth Games medallist in Badminton, Chetan Anand has been roped in as the brand ambassador for the India’s first-ever homegrown professional badminton brand “Transform”.

• Transform Badminton is India’s 1st professional badminton brand at par with the best racquets available in the market that are currently imported from abroad for playing in India.

• Transform racquets have been made out of the military grade graphite.

Banking and Economy

WTO revises up forecast for goods trade to 9.2% decline in 2020

• The World Trade Organization upgraded its forecast for trade in goods this year to a level still comparable to the decline during the global financial crisis, but better than initially predicted due to a rebound in June and July.

• The WTO said that global merchandise trade would fall by 9.2% this year and then increase by 7.2% in 2021.

• The WTO forecast in April that merchandise trade would decline by between 13 and 32% this year, figures described by the WTO chief as “ugly”, before rebounding by between 21 and 24% in 2021 if countries worked together.

Tamil Nadu government to set up advanced manufacturing hub in partnership with WEF

• Tamil Nadu’s Guidance, nodal investment promotion and facilitation agency of the state of Tamil Nadu has partnered with the World Economic Forum (WEF) to establish India’s first advanced manufacturing hub (AMHUB) in Tamil Nadu.

• The Advanced Manufacturing HUB or AMHUB is one of the 19 platforms designed by the WEF.

• This platform focuses on engaging entire regional production ecosystems to identify and address regional opportunities and challenges brought by the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) by amplifying regional success stories, sharing best practices & incubating new partnerships.


Rafael Nadal and Iga Swiatek wins French Open 2020

• In tennis, Rafael Nadal beat Novak Djokovic 6-0,6-2,7-5 to win the men’s 2020 French Open on 11 October 2020.  This is his 13th French Open men’s singles title and 20th Grand Slam title.

• In Women’s single, the 19-year-old Iga Swiatek of Poland, claimed a historic win, by becoming the youngest women to win the title in the history of the championship in 28 years.

• Winners of French Open Tennis 2020

Men’s Single – Rafael Nadal (Spain) beat Novak Djokovic (Serbia)

Women’s Single – Iga Swiatek (Poland) defeated Sofia Kenin (US)

Men’s Double –  Kevin Krawietz and Andreas Mies of Germany

Women’s Double – Tímea Babos (Hungary)/ Kristina Mladenovic (France)

Lewis Hamilton wins 2020 Eifel Grand Prix

• Lewis Hamilton (Mercedes-Great Britain) has won the 2020 Eifel Grand Prix, held on 11 October 2020  at the Nurburgring in Nurburg, Germany.

• This is Hamilton’s 7th win of the season and 91st career race victory, which was till now achieved only by Michael Schumacher.

• The race was the eleventh race in 2020 Formula One World Championship and the first running in history of the Eifel Grand Prix.

• Max Verstappen (Red Bull – Netherlands) came second followed by Daniel Ricciardo (Renault, Australia) at third position.


World Arthritis Day

• On World Arthritis Day, 12 October, people with rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases from around the world join together to make their voices heard.

• Objective of the day is to raise awareness about arthritis, an inflammatory condition which causes pain and stiffness in joints which can worsen with age.

• This day was started by Arthritis and Rheumatism International (ARI) in 1996 in order to spread awareness about arthritis and encourage policymakers to help reduce burden of arthritis.

• The World Arthritis Day theme 2020 is Time2Work.

International Day of the Girl Child

• International Day of the Girl Child (also known as Day of Girls and the International Day of Girls) is observed annually on October 11 since 2012.

• This international observance day was declared by the United Nations to raise awareness of issues facing girls internationally surrounding education, nutrition, child marriage, legal and medical rights.

• The theme for 2020 International Day of the Girl Child is “My voice, our equal future”.

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Important Current Affairs 11th October 2020


Prime Minister Narendra Modi will distribute property cards

• Under Svamitva scheme, Prime Minister Narendra Modi will distribute property cards to rural land owners.

• The property cards are to be distributed to villages in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Uttarakhand.

• Svamitva is Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas to provide the right to document residential properties to the rural population. It enables the rural population to use property as a financial asset.

Andhra Pradesh CM launches Jagananna Vidya Kanuka’ scheme to distribute school kits

• Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister YS Jagan Mohan Reddy has launched a new scheme named the ‘Jagananna Vidya Kanuka’ scheme to distribute school kits among the poor children of the state.

• The state shall spend around Rs 650 crore towards the scheme. 42,34,322 kits will be distributed across the state under the scheme.

• Under this scheme, the government school students from classes 1 to 10 across the state will set the school kits or Vidya Kanuka, which will contain three pairs of uniform, one pair of shoes, two pairs of socks, a belt, one set of textbooks and notebooks and one school bag.

Amazon India partners with IRCTC to offer train ticket bookings

• Amazon India said it had partnered with Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC) to provide their customers with the facility to book reserved train tickets on its platform.

• For the introductory period, has waived off service and payment gateway transaction charges.

• With this launch, Amazon Pay adds another travel category, thereby offering its customers a one-stop-shop for booking flights, bus and train tickets

BRICS Bank grants approval to USD 741 million for Rapid Rail & Mumbai Metro

• BRICS Bank, also known as New Development Bank, approved USD 741 million funds for Delhi-Meerut Rapid Rail and Mumbai metro projects. Of this total amount, USD 500 million have been allocated for the Delhi-Ghaziabad-Meerut Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) Project and USD 241 million have been allocated for Mumbai Metro Rail Project.

• The rapid rail network will connect the National Capital Territory of Delhi with the cities of Meerut and Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh.

• The Mumbai metro rail line 6 will have a length of about 14.47 km. It will provide much needed rail connectivity between the western and eastern suburbs.

Banking and Economy

NABARD inks 3 MoUs with SBI to extend credit support for various projects in Gujarat

• The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development -NABARD has inked three Memoranda of Understanding (MoU) with Public Sector Bank- State Bank of India(SBI) to extend credit support for various projects in Gujarat.

• The MoUs were signed for financing joint liability groups and Self-Help Groups-support credit inflows to Farmer Producers’ Organizations and economic support for watershed development projects.

• These will help in providing credit support to the different sections of the society including the priority sector.

Science and Technology

Coastal security exercise “Sagar Kavach” concludes

• A two-day Coastal Security Exercise namely ‘Sagar Kavach’ conducted by the Indian Navy along with Indian Coast Guard and all stakeholders involved in Coastal Security from the coast of Kerala.

• The exercise was monitored from Joint Operations Centre, Kochi. Sagar Kavach is a half-yearly exercise with an objective to check the Coastal Security mechanism and validate Standard Operating Procedures.

•  The exercise conducted along the coastal areas of Kerala, Karnataka and Lakshadweep assumes significance in the backdrop of the prevailing security situation in the country.

Appointments and Resignations

Nilesh Shah re-elected as Chairman of AMFI

• Nilesh Shah has been re-elected as the Chairman of the Mutual fund industry body, Association of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI).

• Shah is the managing director of Kotak Asset Management Company (AMC).The decision was taken at the annual general meeting (AGM) of the AMFI on 07 October 2020.

• Shah was earlier elected as the chairman for the financial year 2019–20. He would continue to hold the office till the conclusion of the next AGM.


Forbes India Rich List

• The Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) Chairman Mukesh Ambani, has topped the Forbes India Rich list for 2020, released on 8th October 2020.

• He has retained his position as the wealthiest Indian for the 13th consecutive year on Forbes India list.

• The second spot has been retained by Adani Group Chairman Gautam Adani, with a net worth of $25.2 billion.

• Tech tycoon Shiv Nadar acquired the third spot with net worth of $20.4 billion.


World Investor Week

• World Investor Week (WIW) is promoted by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) and will be held between October 05 and October 11, 2020.

• This is the 4th World Investor Week and it aims to raise awareness about the importance of investor education and protection.

National Postal Week

• The Department of Posts is celebrating National Postal Week from 9-15 October, 2020, to mark the occasion of the World Postal Day.

• Every year, the National Postal week is organised to generate awareness of the role and activities of the postal services among the public and media on a national scale.

• Online campaign will be organised to create awareness about new offerings and availability of citizen centric services in Post Offices.

Indian Foreign Service Day

• Indian Foreign Service Day is celebrated on 9 October every year since 2011 to commemorate the day the Indian Cabinet created the IFS.

• Months before India’s independence, in September 1946, the Indian Foreign Service was created “for India’s diplomatic, consular and commercial representation overseas.

World Migratory Bird Day 2020

• Officially, the World Migratory Bird Day is observed twice in a year, firstly on Second Saturday of May and again on Second Saturday of October, so as to follow the seasonal migrations of birds, which peak in those months.

• In 2020, the WMBBD falls on 09 May 2020 and 10 October 2020. The Day was officially declared by the United Nations in 2006.

• The theme of 2020 World Migratory Bird Day is “Birds Connect Our World”.

• The day aims to raise awareness of migratory birds and the need for international cooperation to conserve them.

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Important Current Affairs 10th October 2020


First State to provide 100% Tap Water Connections is Goa

• Goa has become the first state in India to provide 100% tap water connections in rural areas under “Har Ghar Jal State”.

• The State of Goa is now planning to install sensor-based service delivery monitoring system to monitor the functionality of water supply.

• The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to provide 55 litres of tapped water per person per day to all the households by 2024.

The Additional charge of Ministry of Consumer Affairs is given to Piyush Goyal

• The additional charge of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution has been given to the Union Minister Piyush Goyal.

• He currently serving as the Union Minister of Railways and Minister of Commerce and Industry.


Bishr al-Khasawneh appointed as Jordan’s New Prime Minister

• Bishr al-Khasawneh has been appointed as New Prime Minister of Jordan which is a Western Asia.

• The appointment was approved by King of Jordan, Abdullah II ibn Al Hussein.He succeeded Former PM Omar al Razzaz.

Banking and Economy

RBI keeps key interest rates unchanged; projects GDP to shrink by 9.5% in FY21

• The Reserve Bank of India in its Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) meeting on October 9, 2020 has decided to:

• keep the policy repo rate under the liquidity adjustment facility (LAF) unchanged at 4.0 percent.

• reverse repo rate remains unchanged at 3.35 percent

• decided to maintain its accommodative stance.

• The MPC has projected the Indian economy to contract 9.5 percent in the current fiscal 2020-21.


Nobel Peace Prize 2020

• The Norwegian Nobel Committee has awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2020 to World Food Programme (WFP) on 9th October 2020.

• The World Food Programme (WFP) has won the prestigious honor “for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict.”

Science and Technology

India’s Anti-Radiation Missile RUDRAM successfully tested

• The new generation anti-radiation missile named Rudram 1 which has been generated to kill enemy radar is successfully tested in the Balasore test range located off the coast of Odisha in Bay of Bengal.

• This missile was developed by Defence research and development organisation.

• The missile can reach up to a range of 200 km, can achieve a maximum speed of 2 mach and can be fired from an altitude envelope of 500 meters to 15kms


First woman chief justice of Kerala KK Usha passes away

• Former Chief Justice of the Kerala High Court, Justice KK Usha, passed away.

•  She served as a judge from 1991 to 2000 and when she was appointed Chief Justice of the Kerala High Court from 2000 to 2001, Justice Usha became the first woman to join the High Court Judiciary from the Bar and became a Chief Justice.

Mexican scientist Mario Molina passes away

• Mexican scientist and a Nobel Prize receipt Mario Molina have passed away at the age of 77.Molina was the first Mexican to win the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1995.

• He was appointed a scientific adviser to the then U.S. President Barack Obama in the year 2008.

Appointments and Resignations

Manoj Kumar Appointed as chairman and managing director of Western Coalfields Ltd

• According to a personnel ministry order, Manoj Kumar has been appointed as chairman and managing director of Western Coalfields Ltd.

• Currently, Manoj Kumar is serving as the director in the Western Coalfields Ltd.


World Mental Health day

• On 10th October the WHO celebrates World Mental Health day every year.

• Objective of the day is to raise awareness of mental health issues around the world and mobilizing efforts in support of mental health.

• The theme for World Mental Health Day 2020 is ‘Mental Health for All’.

• The World Federation for Mental Health took the initiative of celebrating this day since 1992.

The 2020 World Egg Day

• Every year on the second Friday of October, world celebrates World Egg day. This year the day is being observed on 9th October 2020.

• Objective of the day is to raise awareness of the benefits of eggs and their importance in human nutrition.

• The theme for 2020 World Egg Day is “Eat your egg today and every day”

The 2020 World Sight Day

• Every year on the on the second Thursday of October, world celebrates world sight day.This year the day is observed on 8th October.

• Objective is to draw public awareness towards blindness & vision impairment and educate target audiences about blindness prevention.

• World Sight Day 2020 Theme: Hope In Sight.

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Important Current Affairs 9th October 2020


India’s first B2B Crypto trading exchange DigitX launched

• DigitX, India’s first business-to-business (B2B) cryptocurrency trading exchange, began its trading operations.

• DigiX aims to deliver transparent and secure model with its network of trusted links in a first of its kind industry initiative to instill trust and confidence in its investors and traders of cryptocurrency.

Government launches online startup discovery platform ‘Startup India Showcase’

• To further give boost to the Indian startups, the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) has launched an online discovery platform for startups called “Startup India Showcase”.

• The main aim of this website is to make a repository of India’s most promising startups that have proved their capabilities, from across sectors such as fintech, enterprise tech, social impact, healthtech, and edtech, among others.

• The listed firms will also be considered by the government and corporate buyers as potential suppliers of goods or services.

• The startups mentioned on the website will be handpicked by experts, and will go through multiple screening and evaluation rounds,

• Each startup will have its own profile page, with a detailed information about its product and innovation, as well as video and PDF links.


Russia Successfully Test-Launches ‘Tsirkon’ Hypersonic Missile

• Russia has successfully test-fired its highly touted hypersonic cruise missile called Tsirkon in the waters of northwestern Russia.

• The missile traveled four and a half minutes at the hypersonic speed of more than Mach 8 and a maximum altitude of 28 kilometers.

Banking and Economy

World Bank report states India's Economy to contract by 9.6% in FY21

• India's economy is expected to contract by 9.6 per cent in the current fiscal year (2020-21) because of C-19 pandemic, the World Bank said on October 8, 2020. India's economy is the largest in South Asia.

• The World Bank in its biannual regional update stated that South Asia is set to plunge into its worst-ever recession as the devastating impacts of C-19 on the region's economies linger on. This would take a toll on the informal workers and push millions into extreme poverty in South Asia.

• As per the World Bank report, the regional growth of South Asia is expected to contract by 7.7 per cent in 2020 after topping 6 per cent annually in the past five years.  However, the regional growth is projected to rebound to 4.5 per cent in 2021.

• The income-per-capita in the region will remain 6 per cent below 2019 estimates, factoring growth in population. This indicates that the expected rebound will not offset the lasting economic damage caused by the pandemic.

API integration between PM SVANidhi and SBI portal launched

With an aim to ease processing of loan applications, the Housing and Urban Affairs Secretary Durga Shanker Mishra has initiated the Application Programming Interface (API), integration between the PM SVANidhi Portal and the State Bank of India (SBI) portal.


Nobel Prize in Literature 2020 announced

• The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2020 is awarded to the American poet Louise Glück “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal”.

• The Nobel Prize in Literature is awarded by The Swedish Academy, Stockholm, Sweden.


Union Minister Ram Vilas Paswan passes away

• Union minister of consumer affairs, food and public distribution, Ram Vilas Paswan passed away. He was born on 5 July 1946. He was also the president of the Lok Janshakti Party and current Rajya Sabha MP.

• An eight-time Lok Sabha MP, Paswan went to jail during Indira Gandhi’s tenure when an emergency was imposed in the country. He began his political career as a member of the Samyukta Socialist Party and in 1969 became a member of the Bihar Legislative Assembly.

Former CBI director Ashwani Kumar passes away

• Ashwani Kumar, former Governor of Manipur and Nagaland, and ex-CBI Director passed away.

• He was born at Nahan in Sirmaur district and joined the Indian Police Force in 1973.

• From March 2013 to July 2014, he served as the Governor of Nagaland and also held the additional charge of Governor of Manipur for some time.

Appointments and Resignations

Govt appoints M Rajeshwar Rao as new deputy governor of RBI

• The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet appointed M Rajeshwar Rao as the deputy governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

• Currently, BP Kanungo, MK Jain and Micheal Patra are the deputy governors.Rao will take charge as the fourth deputy governor. The post became vacant after N S Vishwanathan demitted office in March citing health reasons just before his tenure was to end.

• Prior to this, he was the chief general manager of the financial markets operations department.

J Venkatramu appointed MD and CEO of India Post Payments Bank

• J Venkatramu has been appointed the managing director and chief executive officer of India Post Payments Bank (IPPB). He will succeed Suresh Sethi, who served the post till March 2020.

• Venkatramuis presently working as the chief digital officer in Equitas Small Finance Bank. He has been appointed to the post of MD and CEO of IPPB for a period of three years.


World Water Development Report 2020 released by United Nations

• The World Water Development Report 2020 and PCRWR Groundwater Investigation and Mapping report released by the United Nations.

• Around 74% of all-natural disasters between 2001 and 2018 were water-related and during the past 20 years.

• Floods could cost South Asia as much as US$215 billion each year by 2030

• Global floods and extreme rainfall events have increased by more than 50% this decade, and are now occurring at a rate four times higher than in 1980.

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Important Current Affairs 8th October 2020


India gets its first ever Brand & Logo for its Cotton on World Cotton Day

• On the occasion of the 2nd World Cotton Day, the Union Minister of Textiles and Women & Child Development, Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani, launched the first ever Brand & Logo for Indian Cotton on  7th October, 2020 through Video Conferencing.

• It means that from now on, the premium Cotton of India would be known as ‘Kasturi Cotton’ in the world cotton Trade.

• The Kasturi Cotton brand will represent Whiteness, Brightness, Softness, Purity, Luster, Uniqueness and Indianness.


Jordan’s Prime Minister Omar Razzaz resigns

• Jordan’s Prime Minister Omar al Razzaz submitted his resignation to Jordan’s King Abdullah.

• King Abdullah accepted his resignation but asked him to stay on as a caretaker premier until he designates a successor to oversee parliamentary elections on Nov. 10.

• The monarch dissolved parliament at the end of its four-year term in a move that under constitutional rules meant the government had to resign within a week.

Banking and Economy

ICICI becomes the first Bank to offer debit card to customers availing LAS

• ICICI Bank and Visa has partnered to launch a debit card facility for the customers who avail Loans Against Securities (LAS) from the bank.

• Thus ICICI Bank has become the first bank in India to launch this facility after RBI allowed banks to issue electronics cards to customers who avail OD (Overdraft) facility.

• Customer can make use of this card to make payments through POS (Point of Sale) and online transactions by making use of sanctioned LAS account. The maximum daily transaction limit is Rs 3 lakhs.

Summits and Mou’s

NCERT signed an MoU with ISLRTC for deaf children

• To make textbooks and other study material easily accessible for deaf children through sign language, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) signed an MoU with the Indian Sign Language Research and Training Centre (ISLRTC).

• It will not only enhance their vocabulary, but also enhance their capabilities to understand concepts.


Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020

• The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2020 jointly to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing.”

• Emmanuelle Charpentier is a Director of the Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Berlin, Germany.Jennifer A. Doudna is a Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Govt announces results of 1st National Startup Awards

• The Union Minister of Railways and Commerce & Industry Shri Piyush Goyal announced the Results of the first ever National Startup Awards 2020 on 6th October 2020.

• The award has been introduced by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) to recognize and reward outstanding Startups and ecosystem enablers that are building innovative products or solutions and scalable enterprises, with high potential of employment generation or wealth creation, demonstrating measurable social impact.

• The first edition of the Awards had applications from 12 sectors, which were further sub-classified into a total of 35 categories. A total of 1641 applications were received from startups from 23 States and 4 Union Territories.

• All applicants were evaluated against six broad parameters namely Innovation, Scalability, Economic Impact, Social Impact, Environmental Impact, and Inclusiveness and Diversity.

Acquisitions and Mergers

ADIA will invest Rs 5,512.5 crore in Reliance Industries Ltd

• Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (ADIA) will invest Rs 5,512.5 crore in Reliance Industries Ltd’s retail arm.

• With this investment, RRVL has raised Rs 37,710 crore from leading global investors including Silver Lake, KKR, General Atlantic, Mubadala, GIC, TPG and ADIA in less than four weeks.

Science and Technology

C-DAC to commission India’s fastest HPC-AI Supercomputer ‘PARAM Siddhi – AI’ with NVIDIA

• The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) will be commissioning India’s largest HPC-AI supercomputer ‘PARAM Siddhi – AI’.

• This initiative will place India among the top countries in global AI supercomputing research and innovation.

• The initiative was headed by Abhishek Das, Scientist and Program Director (HPC-AI Infrastructure Development) at C-DAC, who conceived the idea and designed the architecture for the largest HPC-AI infrastructure in India.

ICG Offshore Patrol Vessel ‘Vigraha’ Launched to Enhance Coastal Security

• The seventh offshore patrol vessel of the Indian Coast Guard (ICG), ‘Vigraha’ was formally unveiled at the Kattupalli port. The vessel is expected to be inducted into the Coast Guard after completion of extensive trials and testing for the equipment and machinery by March 2021.

• The vessel, built by Larsen and Toubro, is the last in the series of seven OPVs contracted to the company by the Ministry of Defence in 2015.

• The OPV is 98 metres long, 15 metres wide, has 3.6 m draught, 2140T displacement and a range of 5,000 nautical miles.

Appointments and Resignations

MA Ganapathy Appointed Director General of Civil Aviation Security

• A 1986 batch IPS officer of Uttarakhand cadre,M A Ganapathy has been appointed as the Director General of Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS) for a tenure up to his superannuation on February 29, 2024

• The post of BCAS chief fell vacant after Rakesh Asthana was appointed as the Director General of Border Security Force in August.


Air Force Day 2020

• Air Force Day is observed every year on 8 October.The Air Force Day 2020 celebrates the 88th anniversary of the official foundation day of the force on October 8.

• Indian Air Force was officially established on 8 October 1932 by the British Empire as the Royal Indian Air Force. The name was changed to Indian Air Force in 1950.

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Important Current Affairs 7th October 2020


MoHUA enters into MoU with Swiggy to take street food vendors online under PM SVANIDHI scheme

• The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has entered into an MoU with Swiggy, one of the leading food delivery platforms, to onboard street food vendors on its e-commerce platform under the Prime Minister Street Vendor’s AtmaNibhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) Scheme

• The MoU aims at giving the street food vendors online access to thousands of consumers and help them grow their businesses.

• The Ministry and Swiggy will run a pilot programme by on-boarding 250 vendors across five cities namely – Ahmedabad, Chennai, Delhi, Indore, and Varanasi.

CM Kejriwal announces campaign against pollution-‘Yudh Pradushan Ke Virudh’

• Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal launched a mega anti-air pollution campaign, saying polluted air can be life threatening in view of the C-19 pandemic.

• Under the campaign “Yudh Pradushan ke Virudh”, separate plans have been prepared for each of the 13 pollution hotspots in the city.


12th BRICS Summit to be held virtually on November 17, Russia to chair

• The 12th BRICS Summit will be held on 17th November 2020 via video conference. The theme of the Meeting of the Leaders of BRICS countries is “BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Shared Security and Innovative Growth”.

• The Summit this year is being held under the Chairmanship of Russia and aims at a multifaceted cooperation between the member countries.

Banking and Economy

Sebi introduces ‘very high risk category’ in risk-o-meter tool for mutual fund schemes

• Market regulator Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has introduced a new “very high risk” category on its Mutual Funds (MF) riskometer tool, to warn investors, investing in mutual fund schemes.

• Currently the mutual fund (MF) risk-o-meter has five categories – low, moderately low, moderate, moderately high and high. It indicates the scheme’s risk level.

• The revamped 6 categories Risk-o-meter will come into effect from 01 January 2021.


Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez wins 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics

• The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physics on 6th October 2020.

• One half of the award has been given to Roger Penrose for black hole discovery; and the other half jointly to Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez.

• UK’s Roger Penrose has been awarded “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”

• America’s Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez have jointly won “for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the centre of our galaxy.

IACC presents lifetime achievement award to Ratan Tata

• The Indo-American Chamber of Commerce (IACC) has presented the lifetime achievement award to business icon Ratan Tata for his pioneering role in the Business Relations of India-USA and for his lifetime achievement in Global Leadership.

• Tata, who grew the revenues for India’s largest conglomerate ‘The Tata Group’ to nearly USD 100 billion by 2011-12, remains an influential industrialist, philanthropist and humanitarian to the day.

• This award was announced in the virtual event of IACC “C-19 Crusader Award-2020”. This is the 1st time IACC conferred the Lifetime Achievement award to any individual.

Appointments and Resignations

Dinesh Kumar Khara becomes new Chairman of SBI

• The government of India has appointed Dinesh Kumar Khara as the new Chairman of State Bank of India for a period of three years. His appointment is effective from October 7. Currently, Khara is the Managing Director in-charge of Global Banking & Subsidiaries.

• The Banks Board Bureau (BBB) had recommended Khara for the post of Chairman of SBI on August 28, ruling out an extension to Rajnish Kumar, whose term is ending on October 6.


Mumbai ranks second after Delhi in crimes against women, shows NCRB data

• According to the latest data released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), Mumbai recorded 6,519 cases, after national capital Delhi at 12,902 cases during the year 2019.

• Mumbai is ranked second among 19 cities in the country in recording the highest number of crimes against women after Delhi. Mumbai has 76.5 rate of crime against women as compared to other cities such as Jaipur (235), Lucknow (175.4), Delhi (170.3), Indore (169.1), Patna (102.3), Kanpur (98.5), Nagpur (93.6) and Bengaluru (85.9).

• Delhi and Mumbai are ranked in the top two, respectively, for reporting the maximum number of cases of crimes against children.

• Mumbai also has the highest number of sexual harassment incidents on public transport and recorded the highest number of cases for use of children in pornography.

• The financial capital also ranked third on the list of rape cases after Delhi and Jaipur.


World Cotton Day

• The WHO-recognised World Cotton Day (WCD) is observed on 7th October since 2019 to celebrate the international cotton industry and its contribution to communities and the global economy..

• The day was inaugurated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Geneva on October 7, 2019.

• WCD Day was initiated by the Group of Cotton-4 countries namely Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali to the reflect the importance of cotton as a global commodity.

Wildlife week is celebrated on October 2 to 8.

• The Wildlife Week was adopted by National Board of Wildlife.

• This Week was conceptualized in 1952 with an objective of raising awareness to serve the long-term goal of safeguarding the lives of wildlife through critical action.

• The Government of India is also established an Indian Board of Wild Life which works to improve awareness towards the preservation of wildlife.

• The annual theme of the campaign is to promote the preservation of fauna of animal life.

Books and Authors

Book named “Bapu-The Unforgettable” released by Delhi Deputy CM  Manish Sisodia

• The Deputy Chief Minister of Delhi, Manish Sisodia released the book named “Bapu-The Unforgettable”.

• The book was released on Gandhi Jayanti virtually through video conferencing.

• The event was organised by the Delhi Archives & Department of Art, Culture and Language, Government of Delhi.

• A webinar titled “Footprints of Gandhi Ji in Delhi” also took place in that event.

“Baahubali” series author Anand Neelakantan pens debut kids’ book

• The author of Baahubali series, Anand Neelakantan has authored his first kid’s book titled “The Very, Extremely, Most Naughty Asura Tales for Kids”, published by Puffins Publishers Private Limited under the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.

•  The illustrations of the book are made by Subhadeep Roy and Shiladitya Bose.

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Important Current Affairs 6th October 2020


Union Minister Jitendra Singh releases Coffee Table Book ‘Discovering the Heritage of Assam’, authored by Padampani Bora with foreword by Amitabh Bachchan

• The Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), Dr Jitendra Singh released a Coffee Table Book on “Discovering the Heritage of Assam”, written by Padampani Bora and having foreword by Amitabh Bachchan. The book has been published by Penguin.

• With beautiful pictures and photographs, the book depicts the heritage, faith, beliefs and traditions of different ethnic tribes and subtribes living in Assam, the largest State of the North Eastern Region.

• The author, Padampani Bora, is by profession an officer of the Indian Revenue Service (IRS-2009 batch), but has over the years established himself as an accomplished author, specializing in the subjects reflecting diverse nuances of the North Eastern Region of India.


Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2020 announced

• The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden on October 5, 2020, announced that the 2020 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been jointly awarded to Harvey J. Alter, Charles M. Rice, and Michael Houghton for the discovery of the Hepatitis C virus.

• The discovery of the virus is termed as a landmark achievement in a battle against the virus that is a big threat to human health. The three scientists have made a crucial contribution in a fight against blood-borne hepatitis that causes liver cancer and cirrhosis in people.

• The discovery of the Hepatitis C virus by the three scientists revealed the cause of the remaining cases of chronic hepatitis and made possible blood tests and new medicines that have saved millions of lives.

• The prestigious Nobel prize award comes with a gold medal and prize money of 10 million Swedish Kronor.

• As per the World Health Organisation, over 70 million cases, and 4,00,000 deaths due to Hepatitis are recorded every year.

Right Livelihood Award 2020 announced

• The Right Livelihood Award Foundation has announced the four winners of the 2020 Right Livelihood Award 2020 which is also known as the alternative Nobel Prize in Stockholm.

• The four activists Ales Bialiatski of Belarus, Nasrin Sotoudeh of Iran, Bryan Stevenson of the United States(US) and Lottie Cunningham Wren of Nicaragua shared the 2020 award for their contribution towards equality, democracy, justice and freedom.

Science and Technology

DRDO successfully flight tests weapon system SMART- Supersonic Missile Assisted Release of Torpedo

• India has successfully flight-tested SMART (Supersonic Missile Assisted Release of Torpedo) from the Wheeler Island off the coast of Odisha on October 5, 2020.

• The Union Defence Minister Rajnath Singh congratulated the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the successful flight test of SMART. He mentioned it to be a major technology breakthrough in anti-submarine warfare.

• A number of DRDO laboratories, including RCI Hyderabad, DRDL, NSTL Vishakhapatnam, ADRDE Agra have developed the technologies that were required for SMART.


Justice AS Dave, former Judge and acting CJ of the Gujarat HC passes away

• Former Acting Chief Justice of the Gujarat High Court Justice Anantkumar Surendraray Dave passed away at the age of 62.

• Justice Dave was appointed as a Gujarat High Court Judge in 2004 and was made permanent in 2006.

• He was appointed as an Acting Chief Justice of the Gujarat High Court on November 14, 2018 and served until the present Chief Justice Vikram Nath took over the helm in September 2019.

Veteran Social activist Pushpa Bhave passes away

• Veteran social activist Prof Pushpa Bhave, also known as the Iron Lady of Mumbai, has passed away following a prolonged illness. She was 81.

• Bhave has been associated with the Rashtra Seva Dal and democratic movements since her student days.


Puducherry airport becomes AAI’s first 100% solar-powered airport

• The Puducherry airport has become the first airport of the Airports Authority of India (AAI) which is entirely solar-powered.

• The 500KWp ground-mounted solar power plant was commissioned on 2nd October 2020. The approx cost of the plant is Rs 2.8 crore.

• With becoming absolutely power-neutral, the Puducherry airport will be able to meet its entire power requirement through the solar power plant.


World Space Week

• World Space Week is celebrated on October 4-10, to commemorate the launch of earth’s first human-made satellite, Sputnik I, on October 4, 1957, and the signing of the Outer Space Treaty on October 10, 1967.

• 2020 World Space Week is dedicated to satellites and their broad benefits under the theme “Satellites improve life.”

World Habitat Day 2020

• World Habitat Day is observed every year on the first Monday of October throughout the world to reflect on the state of our towns and cities, and on the basic right of all to adequate shelter as well as remind people that they are responsible for the habitat of future generations.

• In 2020, the World Habitat Day is being celebrated on 5th October. The theme for 2020 World Habitat Day is Housing For All — A Better Urban Future.

• It was officially designated by the United Nations in 1985 and first celebrated in 1986.

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